Research Guides: Dictionary and Thesauri Resources



more information New Penguin Dictionary of the Theatre

more information Restricted Resource Some full text available Oxford English Dictionary (OED)
The Oxford English Dictionary is the accepted authority on the evolution of the English language over the last millennium. It is an unsurpassed guide to the meaning, history, and pronunciation of over half a million words, both present and past. It traces the usage of words through 2.5 million quotations from a wide range of international English language sources, from classic literature and specialist periodicals to film scripts and cookery books.

more information The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy

"This excellent dictionary, whose first edition appeared just a few months after Honderich's Oxford Companion to Philosophy, contends with the latter work for the designation 'best all-round single-volume English-language encyclopedic dictionary of philosophy.'" [Bynagle]

Print Material

more information Longman Dictionary and Handbook of Poetry
Print Location: PN1021 .M94 1985 Middleton Stacks
This dictionary provides a critical vocabulary of poetic terms for the poet and the student of poetry. It contains definitions of traditional terms, contemporary workshop terms, terms borrowed from other arts and disciplines, and archaic or specialized jargon. The work has three appendices covering selected topics; rhetorical, poetical, and logical devices; and a selected topical bibliography.
Dictionary Resources
Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary, 40th ed.
Focuses on North America and Western Europe. Volume 1 is a listing of acronyms; 40th edition located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 1693.G3 40th ed. 2008 v.2. Volume 2 is a reverse index; 38th ed. located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE 1693.G3 38th ed. 2007 v.1. See the catalog record for older editions.

American Educator's Encyclopedia, Rev. ed.
"A Choice Outstanding Academic Book in 1982, American Educators' Encyclopedia has now been revised to reflect a decade of change. More than 200 items--ranging from "AIDS" to "Zero Rejection"--have been added to serve today's educators. One third of the original items have been significantly updated or deleted. The authors have diligently kept the same characteristic and quality of the first edition, which provided readers with a quick, accurate understanding of education terms and a ready reference for further direction. References follow each item, and a variety of appendices cover a range of areas. The length and language of each item gives the reader a concise understanding that allows for accessible, comprehensive referencing. The revised American Educator's Encyclopedia is an excellent reference for today's teacher and parent." (Publisher)  Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: LB 15 .D37 1991.

American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms
"This book is a comprehensive survey of the idioms currently used in American English.... [e]ach expression is defined and illustrated by at least one sample sentence showing how it is used in context." (Preface) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE2839 .A47 1997.

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed.
"This edition of America’s favorite dictionary features revised biographical and geographical entries as well as up-to-date charts and tables for topics such as world currencies and chemical elements. Among the 500 entries new to this update are Amber Alert, blogosphere, gravitino, halo effect, hawala, lycopene, malware, micropolis, proteome, Qi Gong, SARS, shout-out, speed dating, sudoku, Texas hold’em, text message, and wiki. The renowned American Heritage® Usage Panel, a group of more than 200 distinguished writers, scholars, and scientists, offers advice on problems of grammar and style; engaging notes explain word histories and clarify differences among synonyms; thousands of quotations and example sentences show words in context; and elegant definitions are enhanced by 4,000 full-color photographs, drawings, and maps, making this one of the most readable dictionaries available anywhere." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE1628 .A623 2000.

American Sign Language Handshape Dictionary
"This unique reference can help users locate a sign whose meaning they have forgotten, or help them find the meaning of a new sign they have just seen for the first time. It organizes more than 1,900 ASL signs by 40 basic handshapes and includes detailed descriptions on how to form these signs to represent the different English words that they might mean. ASL students can begin to track down a sign by determing whether it is formed with one hand or two. Further distinctions of handshape, palm orientation, location, movement, and other nonmanual body signals help them pinpoint their search while also refining their grasp of ASL syntax and grammar. A complete English word index provides the option of referring to an alphabetical listing of English terms to locate an equivalent sign or choice of signs." (Publisher) NetLibrary eBook.

APA Dictionary of Psychology, 1st ed.
This venerable work is aimed at students of all levels, researchers, and health professionals. With 25,000 terms encompassing areas of research such as personality, development, interpersonal relations, memory, and motivation, this Dictionary covers all the major subdisciplines of psychology. Cross-references and four appendixes enhance the work's value. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: BF 31 .A63 2007.

ARTFL Project: Dictionnaires d'autrefois - French Dictionaries of the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries This search engine allows one to simultaneously search Jean Nicot's Thresor de la langue française (1606), Jean-François Féraud's Dictionaire critique de la langue française (1787-1788), Émile Littré's Dictionnaire de la langue française (1872-1877) and the Dictionnaire de L'Académie française 1st (1694), 4th (1762), 5th (1798), 6th (1835), and 8th (1932-5) editions. The site is in English, but there are no translations provided for the French definitions. This is useful for advanced students of French and scholars of language.

ARTFL Project: French-English Dictionary Form
Developed by the ARTFL Project; about 75,000 terms.

ArtLex Art Dictionary
Artlex is an online art dictionary edited by Michael Delahunt. In addition to an A-Z list of art terms, Artlex also contains longer articles on subjects like "Arms & Armor" and "Bauhaus." Indexed and fully searchable, it covers art production, criticism, history, aesthetics, and education.

ASLPro American Sign Language Dictionary
ASLPro is a free dictionary of American Sign Language designed primarily for ASL Educators. Each word entry provides a video of a person signing the word or letter. In addition to its main dictionary with over 10,000 entries, the web site contains a listing of religious signs and conversational phrases. Although not intended as a stand-alone resource for learning ASL, it is a valuable resource for people new to ASL or looking for a specific word.

Basic English vocabulary
Part of the All Free Dictionaries Project, the Basic Voculabary pages are standard lists of English words translated into 36 different languages. There is no guide to pronunciation, only a list of written equivalents.

Black's Law Dictionary, 8th ed.
"Edited by Bryan A. Garner, the world’s leading legal lexicographer, Black’s Law Dictionary, 8th Edition is now better than ever! The new 8th Edition has more than 43,000 definitions, plus almost 3,000 quotations. Alternative spellings or equivalent terms and expressions are provided for more than 5,300 terms and senses, serving a thesaurus-like function. The extensive appendix on legal abbreviations is a major addition. It’s the first time such a comprehensive guide has been included in a modern law dictionary, and is an invaluable aid to the legal researcher." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: KF 156 .B53 2004.

Blackwell Dictionary of Anthropology
"The Dictionary of Anthropology is designed to become the standard reference guide to the discipline of social and cultural anthropology. Its core consists of substantial analytical articles focusing on key anthropological concepts, theories and methodologies." (Publisher) NetLibrary eBook.

Blackwell Dictionary of Human Geography, 4th ed.
"This path-breaking guide to the concepts, terms and theories used in human geography has now been fully revised to reflect and to advance changes in the nature and practice of human geography. The Dictionary of Human Geography, Fourth Edition, contains a wealth of new material, to ensure that it remains the definitive resource for a new generation of students and teachers. As human geography plays an increasingly important role in interdisciplinary inquiry, so The Dictionary of Human Geography draws upon and contributes to a rich and diverse series of debates, making the dictionary an indispensable guide to contemporary travels in interdisciplinary space." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: GF 4 .D52 2000.

Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought
"Modern social thought ranges widely from the social sciences to philosophy, political theories and doctrines, cultural ideas and movements, and the influence of the natural sciences. This dictionary provides an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the main themes of social thought, principal schools and movements of thought and those institutions that have been the subject of social analysis or engendered significant doctrines and ideas. Detailed entries cover major currents of thought, philosophical and cultural trends, and the individual social sciences from anthropology to welfare economics. These are supplemented by shorter accounts of specific concepts and phenomena.... Each entry includes suggestions for further reading, and the volume contains a bibliography of all sources cited within the text." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: H 41 .B53 2003.

Blackwell Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Social Thought, 2nd. ed.
"This Dictionary aims to provide a reliable and comprehensive overview of the main themes of social thought, in particular the major concepts, principal schools and movements of thought, and those institutions that have been objects of social analysis or engendered significant doctrines and ideas." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: H41 .B53 2003.

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable, 17th ed.
"Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable is one of the world's best-loved reference books. First published in 1870, this treasury of 'words that have a story to tell' has established itself as one of the great reference classics—the first port of call for tens of thousands of terms, phrases and proper names, and a fund of fascinating, unusual and out-of-the-way information. At the heart of the dictionary lie entries on the meaning and origin of a vast range of words and expressions, from everyday English phrases to Latin tags. Alongside these are articles on people and events in mythology and religion, and on folk customs, superstitions and beliefs. Major events and people in history are also treated, as are movements in art and literature, famous literary characters, and key aspects of popular culture, philosophy, geography, science and magic." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PN 43 .B65 2005.

BRL: Contraction Lookup Dictionary
This database contains Braille equivalents of 45,000 words, utilizing American Grade 2 Contraction rules. In addition to this Lookup Dictionary, the Braille through Remote Learning web site contains a wealth of information on Braille, including an electronic version of Braille Formats: Principles of Print to Braille Transcription (1997).

Buzzwords: the Jargon of the 1990s

"A wildly funny dictionary of highly outrageous jargon used by doctors, morticians, salespeople, and others who drop the polite act when they think we're not listening. Defines such bizarre terms as PC whacker, Leona, flatliners, scarf and barf, and more." (Publisher) Relevant disciplines: Pop Culture, Communication Studies. Located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE 1585 .D38 1993.

Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 2nd ed.
"Widely acclaimed as the most authoritative and accessible one-volume dictionary available in English, this second edition offers an even richer, more comprehensive, and up-to-date survey of ideas and thinkers written by an international team of 436 contributors. This second edition includes the most comprehensive entries on major philosophers, 400 new entries including over fifty on preeminent contemporary philosophers, extensive coverage of rapidly developing fields such as the philosophy of mind and applied ethics, more entries on non-Western philosophy than any comparable volume, and increased coverage of Continental philosophy." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: B 41 .C35 1999. Also available electronically.

Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology
"Featuring over 600 entries, from concise definitions to discursive essays, written by leading international academics, the Dictionary offers a truly global perspective, examining both American and European traditions and approaches. Entries cover schools, theories, theorists and debates, with substantial articles on all key topics in the field. While recognising the richness of historical sociological traditions, the Dictionary also looks forward to new and evolving influences such as cultural change, genetics, globalization, information technologies, new wars and terrorism. Most entries incorporate references for further reading and a cross-referencing system enables easy access to related areas. This Dictionary is an invaluable reference work for students and academics alike and will help to define the field of sociology in years to come." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: HM 425 .C36 2006. Also available electronically.

Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.
"The Ninth Edition is nearly double the size of the previous edition and has been updated, revised, and vastly expanded to cover the explosion of new words and terms in psychiatry (including terms reflective of the debate now informing the development of the DSM-V), neuroscience, cognitive and clinical psychology, and neurodegenerative diseases as well as relevant terms and concepts from a wide range of related fields, including genetics, imaging, general medicine, forensic psychiatry, and sociology. It also covers the full range of treatments, including psychopharmacologic agents, behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and other brief therapies. The entries are clearly written, so that they can be understood by non-psychiatrists (including general readers), and they feature cross-references, so that readers can easily locate all the relevant information on a topic. Campbell's is written for the working library of a broad and diverse readership of specialists and non-specialists with an interest in mental health issues." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: RC 437 .H5 2009.

ChemIDplus Advanced
ChemIDplus is a chemistry resource that contains over 380,000 chemical records, with over 290,000 that include their chemical structure. The chemicals indexed consist of drugs, pesticides, environmental pollutants, and other potential toxins. You can search by chemical name, toxicity, physical properties, chemical structure, and molecular weight.

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology
"With more than 4,000 original entries mapping the world of archeological theory and research, this book details the concepts, methods, materials, artifacts, findings, and sites around the world. This A-to-Z resource is a virtual introduction to archeology as a science, covering its key themes, trends, techniques, and major figures, as well as its principal discoveries and findings in all parts of the world. Included are quick reference guides to chronological periods and traditions, lists of abbreviations and key historical figures, and detailed portraits of the archeology of key sites from around the world. The Dictionary is unique in providing full coverage of the principles and theoretical perspectives that are the foundations of the field, as well as American and British legislation relevant to archeological sites and research." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: CC 70 .C37 2002.

Currency Converter for 164 Currencies
FXConverter is a currency conversion tool that indexes 164 currencies and 3 metals in 7 languages. It uses daily OANDA Rates® to provide exchange information.

Dictionary and Thesaurus - Merriam-Webster Online
The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary is based on the print version of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. In addition to the main A-Z listing of the Collegiate Dictionary, it contains the Biographical Names, Geographic Names, Abbreviations, and Foreign Words and Phrases sections.

Dictionary for Library and Information Science
This is the print version of ODLIS (, bookmarked in this site. It is a useful work for library science students, practicing librarians, and others interested in understanding the organization and terminology of libraries and other information providers. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: Z 1006 .R45 2004. Also available electronically.

Dictionary of Agriculture, 2nd ed.
"Dictionary of Agriculture is now available in a new, completely-revised second edition: it now includes 6,500 main headwords--a wide range of terms relating to agriculture, horticulture, and veterinary science. Topics covered include: breeds of animals; varieties of crop plants; diseases; soils; fertilizers; agricultural methods (e.g., irrigation); crop sales; and commodity markets. The text also includes copious illustrations, charts, and tables. A comprehensive supplement includes charts and tables showing crop production, livestock, land classification, and other data useful to students and researchers in agriculture. " (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: S 411 .D573 1998.

Dictionary of American History, 3rd ed.
"The third edition of the Dictionary of American History (Stanley I. Kutler, ed. in chief) is the first comprehensive revision of the classic Scribner reference source, originally published in 1940. Entries from previous editions have been updated and revised in light of historical developments and current scholarship, and over 800 entirely new entries have been commissioned to cover recent events ("Bush v. Gore") and topics neglected by previous editions ("Harlem Renaissance"). For the first time, illustrations and maps will be incorporated into the main body of the work, illuminating the text of the Dictionary and thereby enriching the reader's experience. This work will serve students, scholars, and the interested general reader in search of a quick and authoritative reference covering a wide range of topics in American history-from the well-studied ("Louisiana Purchase") to the obscure ("Camels in the West")." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: E 174 .D52 2003.

Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles

While dating from the 1950s, this work still holds relevance today. Its purpose is to show the history of words added to the English language in the United States. It contains 50,000 entries, including words coined in America, borrowed words from Native Americans, and terms that acquired new meanings. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 2835 .D5.

Dictionary of Bias-Free Usage: a Guide to Nondiscriminatory Language
"Designed for anyone who works with words, this provides guidelines and a selection of 15,000 alternatives to help recognize bias in the English language, replace stereotypical language and improve communication skills. Also included is advice and background perspective on usage or word origin." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 1460 .M26 1991.

Dictionary of Business Terms
 "This volume is a general business dictionary covering every functional aspect of an organization, including nearly 3,200 business terms. All terms include definition, a description in context, and examples. For some of the more complex topics, an analysis is provided. Some terms include URLs to web pages that further illustrate or clarify the term." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: HF 1001 .S5247 2006.

Dictionary of Concepts in Physical Anthropology
"This reference dictionary takes a new approach to the study of physical anthropology by focusing on the concepts involved. Stevenson presents concise entries describing the development of physical anthropological concepts followed by bibliographies including most of the major works in the field. The history of the usage of each concept is traced from its origins--often outside the discipline of physical anthropology--to the contemporary and usually multidisciplinary contexts in which physical anthropologists participate. Entries clearly delineate both the theoretical development of the concepts under discussion and their applications in physical anthropological practice." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: GN 50.3 .S74 1991.

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History: From 1900 to the Present Day, 3rd ed.
"With more than 2,600 entries, all written by an expert in the field, this authoritative dictionary provides in-depth coverage of major recent historical events, from 1900 to the present. The book includes informative entries on every country in the world, with maps and historical summaries, and has biographical profiles of major historical figures, political and military leaders, and leading thinkers who influenced events. Readers will find information on international organizations, treaties, religious and political movements, as well as key incidents, places, and battles. The third edition has been fully revised, updated and boasts a wealth of new material, web links that can be accessed via a special companion website (regularly updated to ensure accurate information), and useful tables including lists of office-holders for countries and winners of the Nobel Peace Prize." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: D 419 .P32 2008.

Dictionary of Environment and Conservation
"Chris Park offers a comprehensive reference work containing over 8,500 informative entries on all aspects of the environment and conservation, embracing a broad spectrum of concerns, including sustainable development, biodiversity, environmental ethics, philosophy and history, resource management, sociology, and environmental policy. [T]he Dictionary includes thirty highlighted entries on topics such as Antarctica, Chernobyl, the Kyoto Protocol, and ozone depletion. And unlike other books in this area, the dictionary addresses not only the scientific side of conservation and the environment, but also social, legal, political and economic aspects.... The volume also boasts wide coverage of terms relating to rural/community development and participation, an area that plays an increasingly crucial role in managing the environment and biodiversity." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: GE 10 .P375 2007.

Dictionary of Film Terms, Rev. ed.
"A trusted, practical handbook, Dictionary of Film Terms clearly and concisely defines the essential terms of film analysis, appreciation, and production, with a special focus on the aesthetic values of filmmaking. Extensive cross-referencing among individual definitions ensures easy access to specific terms, and a comprehensive topical index relates to larger concepts of film art by grouping them under such wide-ranging categories as editing, cinematography, composition, and lighting. Dictionary of Film Terms is a valuable compendium of definitions of aesthetic techniques (ambient sound, camera angle, process shot), theoretical concepts (auteur criticism, film acting), styles (Hitchcockian, naturalist, neorealist), and genres (film noir, screwball comedy) that together comprise the language of motion-picture expression." (Publisher, refers to newer edition) Located in Middleon Main Stacks: TR 847 .B43 1994.

Dictionary of Media and Communication Studies, 7th ed.
"The Watson and Hill Dictionary has long been a classic of its kind, a "must" for university and college booklists and both students and teachers of communication. This new edition takes into account recent developments in communication while at the same time retaining historical perspectives. There are over 50 new entries as well as substantial updates in areas such as Intercultural communication, public relations, and marketing communications.... The Dictionary of Media and Communication responds to a vital need of all citizens in the 21st century to be media literate by developing a better understanding of the contexts in which interpersonal, group, national, and international communication takes place." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Call Reference Stacks: P 87.5 .W38 2006.

Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture
"Race, ethnicity and culture are concepts that are interpreted in various and often contradictory ways. This Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity and Culture provides the historical background and etymology of a wide number of words related to these concepts, looking at discourses of race, ethnicity and culture from a broadly multicultural perspective. This new and up-to-date resource contains numerous references to both European and American concepts, debates and terms. " (Publisher's Description) Relevant disciplines: African-American Studies, Anthropology. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: HT 1521 .D537 2003.

Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, 8th ed.
"The definitive work on slang, this dictionary gives a fully documented account of slang and unconventional English over four centuries and will entertain and inform all lovers of the English language." (Publisher) There is an emphasis on British slang. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 3721 .P3 1984B.

Dictionary of the Underworld, British & American, Being the Vocabularies of Crooks, Criminals, Racketeers, Beggars and Tramps, Convicts, the Commercial Underworld, the Drug Traffic, the White Slave Traffic, Spivs, 2nd ed.
"One of the great lexicographers of the twentieth century, Partridge compiled the Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, Shakespeare's Bawdy, A Dictionary of Catch Phrases and other books. Thoroughly engrossing, A Dictionary of the Underworld offers definitions for such obscure terms and phrases as "witch-hazel man" (heroin addict), "sarbot" (informer), "eason" (to tell) and "budge a beak" (run away)." (Publisher's description) Relevant disciplines: Criminal Science, Anthropology, Literature. Located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE 3726 .P3 1961.

A Dictionary of World History, 2nd ed.
"This wide-ranging dictionary contains a wealth of information on all aspects of history, from prehistory right up to the present day. Over 4,000 clear, concise entries include biographies of key figures in world history, seperate entries for every country in the world (summarising key historical events), and subject entries on religious and political movements, international organizations, and key battles and places. This new edition of the dictionary has been thoroughly updated to cover recent changes in world affairs. ... The book also contains twenty-five detailed maps linked to key historical events and topics. These include the African slave trade, the Black Death, and the Normandy campaign. Encyclopedic in scope, this ambitious dictionary provides an excellent overview of world history both for students and the general reader." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: D9 .D553 2006.

DWDS - Das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache des 20. Jh. (German Dictionary)
This is a comprehensive German dictionary. This is not a German-English dictionary, so it is useful only for students with some understanding of the language.

Electrochemistry Dictionary
This online dictionary contains over 1,000 entries that provide simple and brief definitions of words and phrases used often in electrochemistry.

EniG. Periodic Table of the Elements
Edited by a Chemistry Professor from Croatia, this online periodic table provides the atomic number, electron configuration, atomic radius, and relative atomic mass for each element in the table. Each record also has a descriptive paragraph for the element that includes its word origin and date of discovery.

Facts on File Dictionary of Marine Science, New ed.
"The Facts On File Dictionary of Marine Science, New Edition contains nearly 3,000 entries—more than 300 of which are new or revised—covering the basic vocabulary of marine science. This updated edition features the most up-to-date terms and explanatory charts and graphs related to this multidisciplinary field, which encompasses biochemistry, botany, chemistry, ecology, geodesy, geography, geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, microbiology, minerology, seismology, and zoology. The back matter has been revised, new line illustrations have been added, and a bibliography with resources and Web sites aid further research on this topic. Helpful appendixes include the geologic time scale, a chronology of events in marine history, and marine science research projects." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: GC 9 .F28 2008.

Fashion Dictionary
"This is the first English language edition of the Dizionario della Moda . It is a collection of over 4500 entries from the fashion world - designers, fashion houses, brands, photographers, distributors - with particular attention to Italian designers. The Dizionario was first published in 2004 and, due to its popularity, has been updated and translated into English, making this a rich and comprehensive manual, relevant for today, which is easy to use. Attention is focused not only on the bright lights on the runways, but also on the minor players - The Fashion Dictionary is a journalistic tome which tells the stories of the men, women, and events of fashion. There are roughly one hundred contributors to this encyclopedia and they range from fashion historians and writers to great names of lifestyle journalism and trade reporting." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: TT 503 .F374 2006.

TheFreeDictionary - Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Translations
The main source of TheFreeDictionary's general dictionary is Houghton Mifflin's American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. This source is supplemented by the Collins Essential English Dictionary, Second Edition, acronyms, etymologies, translations, illustrations, usage examples, and many other features.

Gallaudet Dictionary of American Sign Language
"Created by an unparalleled board of experts led by renowned ASL linguist and poet Clayton Valli, The Gallaudet Dictionary of American Sign Language represents the culmination of more than five years of meticulous assessment and labor. More than 3,000 illustrations arrayed in this volume display the most useful selection of signs to be found in any single ASL reference resource. Each sign illustration, including depictions of fingerspelling when appropriate, incorporates a complete list of English synonyms. A full, alphabetized English index enables users to cross-reference words and signs throughout the entire volume." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: HV 2475 .G35 2005.

Greenwood Dictionary of Education
"The first of its kind since the 1980s, this book provides authoritative definitions for more than 2,600 terms that apply to educational research, practice, and theory. The overall focus is on the most critical terms in education as used by current practitioners, yet references to significant historical events in education are also included. Each of the definitions is 25-250 words and has been written by a knowledgeable practitioner or researcher in the field. Included are acronyms and initialisms commonly used in the field, names and descriptions of relevant organizations, and important legal decisions relating to education. An extensive bibliography provides useful sources for further research. This reference work will be valuable for professionals in the K-12 setting, students of education, and educators and researchers in colleges of education." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: LB 15 .G68 2003.

Greenwood Dictionary of World History
"The Greenwood Dictionary of World History is an indispensable, handy, and easy to use A-to-Z first-stop ready-reference resource providing essential information on over 2,000 of the most studied and important people, events, places, and ideas in world history from prehistoric to modern times, from all regions and epochs. Selection of entries—which are truly global in their range—was based on the guidelines and recommendations of organizations and agencies such as the National Council for History Education, the National Center for History in the Schools, the World History Association, the College Board World History Advanced Placement Test, and many of the state standards for history education. The content of the entries has been kept brief and concise to provide a definition or fundamental facts." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: D 9 .B88 2006.

HarperCollins Dictionary of Religion, 1st ed.
"Led by general editor Jonathan Z. Smith, a team drawn from the American Academy of Religion has collected more than 3,200 entries written by 327 leading experts from around the world and across the theological and religious spectrum.... Designed for the general reader, this highly accessible resource addresses everything from the great living traditions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism and Judaism to the very latest new religions. Diverse topics -- from the experience of women in Islam to the troublesome realities of religion and violence -- are covered with compelling facts and figures, eloquent prose, and riveting accuracy." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: BL 31 .H37 1995.

Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 15th ed.
"Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 15th Edition is a compilation of technical data and descriptive information covering thousands of chemicals and chemical phenomena, trade name products, processes, reactions, products, and related terminology. Organized to meet the needs of those who have only minutes to devote to any given substance or topic, the 15th Edition updates and expands the coverage from the previous edition." (Publisher)  Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: QD 5 .C5 2007.

iLoveLanguages - Your Guide to Languages on the Web
This site gathers Web resources on the languages of the world, organized by language. 73 languages are covered with varied depth.

International Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary, 5th ed.
Covers over 150 countries. U.S., British, and Canadian terms are excluded unless they have international significance. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: P 365 .I57 5th ed. v.1.

International Dictionary of Broadcasting and Film, 2nd ed.
"No matter what continent you are on, the distinct professional language of radio and television broadcasters and film and video makers remains the same. Still the only reference that is international in scope, The International Dictionary of Broadcasting and Film, Second Edition is a comprehensive guide to professional filmmaking and broadcasting terminology. Entries also include information on professional organizations, festivals and awards. Appendices contain tables of international television and film standards, frequencies and channels, and a list of national and international news agencies and their standard abbreviations." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PN 1990.4 .B64 2000. Also available electronically.

International Law: a Dictionary
"This dictionary acquaints legal and other professionals, students, and interested general readers, with the basic tenets of public international law, combining the features of both a brief encyclopedic dictionary and a textbook in a language understandable to the lay person. Includes a list of acronyms and abbreviations; a glossary of Latin phrases; a chronology that offers a historical perspective by listing major developments relating to international law throughout the centuries; a table of cases with references to entries; and 373 entries with numerous cross-references and abundant references to primary sources, mostly treaties and court cases." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: KZ 1161 .B63 2005.

IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology - the Gold Book
Put together by the Royal Society of Chemistry, this is a searchable online version of the "Gold Book", including over 7,000 terms.

Japanese <-> English Dictionary Server
Its text-only interface is a powerful way to search its many word-lists, including lists for names, life-science terms, forestry terms, engineering terms, and many more.

Juba to Jive: a Dictionary of African-American Slang
"Contains a comprehensive collection of African-American slang throughout history, and the entries include date of arrival into the language, clear definitions, cross-references, and more." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE 3727 .N4 M34 1994B.

Kinesiology: a Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References
"This is a 3-in-1 reference book. It gives a complete medical dictionary covering hundreds of terms and expressions relating to kinesiology. It also gives extensive lists of bibliographic citations. Finally, it provides information to users on how to update their knowledge using various Internet resources. The book is designed for physicians, medical students preparing for Board examinations, medical researchers, and patients who want to become familiar with research dedicated to kinesiology. If your time is valuable, this book is for you. First, you will not waste time searching the Internet while missing a lot of relevant information. Second, the book also saves you time indexing and defining entries. Finally, you will not waste time and money printing hundreds of web pages." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: QP 303 .K522 2004.

Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid
Hosted by the Notre Dame University Archives, this page is a Latin wordlist with English equivalents. An English to Latin database is also provided, in addition to a Latin Scrabble game for multiple online players.

LEO English-German Dictionary
This site has over 570,000 entries. Each word has an audio file with correct pronunciation. Translation goes beyond equivalents; LEO also contains idiomatic phrases.

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Earth Science, 2nd ed.
"Derived from the world-renowned McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, Sixth Edition, this vital reference offers a wealth of essential information in a portable, convenient, quick-find format. Whether you’re a professional, a student, a writer, or a general reader with an interest in science, there is no better or more authoritative way to stay up-to-speed with the current language of earth science or gain an understanding of its key ideas and concepts." (Publisher). Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: QE 5 .M364 2003.

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.
"For more than a quarter of a century, this amazingly comprehensive dictionary has been a standard international reference. Containing more than 115,000 terms and 125,000 definitions--from 100 areas of science and technology--this trusted resource provides definitions written in clear, simple language, understandable to the general reader, yet is consistent with the specialized use of the term." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: Q 123 .M15 2003.

Medical Dictionary - definitions of popular medical terms easily defined
Published by, this site includes over 9000 terms, abbreviations, syndromes, eponyms, and more related to the bio-medical sciences.

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed.
Located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE1628 .M36 2002.

NetLingo The Internet Dictionary
NetLingo has thousands of words, phrases, and symbols pertaining to the online world, including an Acryonyms & Text Messaging List and a Smileys & Emoticons glossary.

The New Comprehensive American Rhyming Dictionary, 1st ed.
Uses American English pronunciation and includes American slang and colloquialisms. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 1519 .Y68 1991.

Newspeak: A Dictionary of Jargon
"Jargon terms used in many fields which assault the lay person every day are explained in full." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE 1585 .G735 1984.

ODLIS: Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science
A useful site for library science students, practicing librarians, and others interested in understanding the organization and terminology of libraries and other information providers.

Online Conversion - Convert just about anything to anything else
This web site has conversion tools for various categories, including clothing sizes, cooking, length, temperature, speed, volume, weight, etc.

Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed. rev.
"For almost half a century, the Oxford Classical Dictionary has been the unrivaled one-volume reference work on the Greco-Roman world. Whether one is interested in literature or art, philosophy or law, mythology or science, intimate details of daily life or broad cultural and historical trends, the OCD is the first place to turn for clear, authoritative information on ancient culture. ... Readers will find entries on mythological and legendary figures, on major cities, famous buildings, and important geographical landmarks, and on legal, rhetorical, literary, and political terms and concepts, as well as extensive thematic articles that offer superb coverage of topics of interest to both scholars and general readers, exploring everything from medicine and mathematics to music, law, and marriage." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: DE 5 .O9 2003.

Oxford Dictionary of Allusions
"Allusions form a colourful extension to the English language, drawing on our collective knowledge of literature, mythology, and the Bible to give us a literary shorthand for describing people, places, and events. So a miser is a Scrooge, a strong man is a Samson or a Hercules, a beautiful woman is a Venus or a modern-day Helen of Troy - we can suffer like Sisyphus, fail like Canute, or linger like the smile of the Cheshire Cat. This absorbing reference work explains the meanings of allusions in modern English, from Abaddon to Zorro, Tartarus to Tarzan, and Rubens to Rambo. Fascinating to browse through, the book is based on an extensive reading programme that has identified the most commonly-used allusions. Quotations are included in most entries to illustrate usage, from a range of authors and sources, from Thomas Hardy to Ben Elton, Charles Dickens to Bridget Jones's Diary." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 1580 .D45 2001.
Oxford Dictionary of Art, 3rd ed.
"Covering Western art from the ancient world to the present day, the Dictionary provides a careful balance of fact and critical appraisal ranging across painting, sculpture, drawing, and the applied arts. Over 3000 entries provide the reader with information on a wide range of people and subjects, including artists, critics, collectors, dealers, patrons, museums, art schools, materials, and techniques. This third edition has been thoroughly revised and expanded, with over 200 new entries on contemporary artists, such as Damien Hirst, Julian Schnabel, Antony Gormley; new forms, such as video art; museums, patrons, and collectors. The Dictionary also includes an updated contextual chronology of major works, as well as a practical directory of museums and galleries around the world." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: N 33 .O93 2004.

Oxford Dictionary of Business and Management, 4th ed.
"The Dictionary of Business and Management is a wide-ranging and informative guide to all areas of business. It features up-to-date coverage of over 6,700 terms from marketing to taxation and accounting, business strategy and international finance. US business terms are covered, as well as financial jargon. ... In addition to these areas, coverage of social psychology as it relates to management has been expanded, and now covers concepts such as group task theory, group productivity theory, role theory, and leadership theory. Written by a specialized team of contributors in a clear and accessible style, the dictionary will prove indispensable to both business students and professionals." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: HF 1001 .C63 2006.

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.
"Fully revised and updated, this fifth edition is the ideal work of reference for students of chemistry, either at school or at university. Containing many new entries as well as biographies of key scientists, it covers all aspects of chemistry, including physical chemistry and biochemistry. There are over 4,300 entries, including approximately 100 entries to this new edition. The dictionary also includes single- or double-page feature articles on important topics, such as polymers and crystal defects. Chronologies chart the main discoveries in such fields as atomic theory, biochemistry, explosives, and plastics." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: QD 5 .D4985 2004.

Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 5th ed.
"Now in its fifth edition, this bestselling dictionary has been fully revised by a team of computer specialists, making it the most up-to-date dictionary of computing available. It provides comprehensive coverage of computer applications in industry, the office, science, education, and the home, and is an ideal reference book for students, teachers, professionals, and all computer users." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: QA 76.15 .D526 2004.

Oxford Dictionary of Dance
"With over 2,500 entries covering all aspects of dance, this unique dictionary is the only one of its kind available. ... It provides all the information necessary for dance fans to navigate the current diverse dance scene. During the last twenty years the boundaries of dance have been radically redrawn. There has been an explosion of new activity within traditional forms like ballet, a stream of new dance languages invented by fresh generations of choreographers, and there is a growing appreciation of cultural dance forms from around the world. ... With an emphasis on performance - the dance we see in our theatres today - readers will find both fact and analysis on a wide range of subjects, from styles of dance and the history of dance companies and their productions, to dancers, choreographers, and technical terms." (Publisher) Located in Reference Stacks: GV 1585 .C78 2002.

Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences, 2nd ed.
"Oxford's fully revised and updated Dictionary of Earth Sciences, Second Edition, provides over 6,000 entries, making it the most authoritative and wide-ranging dictionary of earth sciences available in a single volume. The dictionary's exceptionally broad coverage includes climatology, economic geology, geochemistry, oceanography, palaeontology, petrology, and volcanology. This second edition offers new material on planetary science, remote sensing, statistics, and sequence stratigraphy; plus substantial updating in mineralogy and geophysics. A new section of appendices includes wind strength scales; material, temporal, and chronostratigraphic units; and geologic, lunar, and Martian time scales. The Dictionary of Earth Sciences, Second Edition is an essential reference for all students of the subject, especially those in interdisciplinary courses." (Publisher)  Located in Reference Stacks: QE 5 .D54 1999.

Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, 2nd ed.
"This best-selling dictionary is written by one of the most famous philosophers of our time, and it is widely recognized as the best dictionary of its kind. Comprehensive and authoritative, it covers every aspect of philosophy from Aristotle to Zen. With clear and concise definitions, it provides lively and accessible coverage of not only Western philosophical traditions, but also themes from Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and Jewish philosophy. Entries include over 500 biographies of famous and influential philosophers, in-depth analysis of philosophical terms and concepts, and a chronology of philosophical events stretching from 10,000 BC to the present day. ... Fully cross-referenced and containing over 3,000 alphabetical entries, it is the ideal introduction to philosophy for anyone with an interest in the subject, and it is an indispensable work of reference for students and teachers." (Publisher) Located in Reference Stacks: B 41 .B53 2005.

Oxford Dictionary of Physics, 4th ed.
"Comprehensive and up to date, this fourth edition is the ideal reference tool for students of physics, either at school or at university. Containing many new entries, and now with biographies of key scientists, it covers all the commonly encountered terms and concepts of physics." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: QC 5 .C56 2000.

Oxford Dictionary of Psychology, 2nd ed.
"With over 11,000 entries, this comprehensive and up-to-date dictionary covers all branches of psychology. Clear, concise descriptions for each entry offer extensive coverage of key areas including cognition, sensation and perception, emotion and motivation, learning and skills, language, mental disorders, and research methods. The range of entries extends to related disciplines including psychoanalysis, psychiatry, the neurosciences, and statistics. Entries are extensively cross-referenced for ease of use, and cover word origins and derivations as well as definitions. In addition to the alphabetical entries, the Dictionary of Psychology, Second Edition also includes appendices covering over 800 commonly used abbreviations and symbols, as well as a list of phobias and phobic stimuli, with definitions." (Publisher) Located in Middeton Reference Stacks: BF 31 .C65 2006.

Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes
Uses British English pronunciation. Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 1519 .O94 2006.

Oxford Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed.
"The Dictionary of Sociology is one of the most informative and wide-ranging reference books of its kind. Compiled by a team of sociological experts, it is packed with over 2,500 entries, each elaborated with clear descriptions and in-depth analysis, making the most complicated subjects easy to understand. Real-life examples are given wherever possible and coverage is extensive and includes terms from related fields such as psychology, economics, anthropology, philosophy, and political science.... New entries cover everything from adaptation to orientalism. This up-to-date edition also contains a range of new biographies covering key figures, such as Gilles Deleuze and Erich Fromm. The Dictionary of Sociology is both a valuable introduction to the subject for beginners and an essential reference work for people with more advanced interests." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: HM 425 .D5735 2005.

Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine, 3rd ed.
"The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides comprehensive and authoritative definitions of nearly 8000 sports science and sports medicine terms. All major areas are covered, including exercise psychology, sports nutrition, biomechanics, anatomy, sports sociology, training principles and techniques and sports injury and rehabilitation The dictionary will be an invaluable aid to students, coaches, athletes and anyone wanting instant access to the scientific principles, anatomical structures, and physiological, sociological and psychological processes that affect sporting performance. It will also be of interest to the general reader interested in sports science and medicine terminology." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: RC 1206 .O94 2006.

Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, 1st ed.
"Religion is an integral part of every culture on Earth. And with the rise of the global village, the great influx of immigrants into the United States from Asia and the Middle East, and the growth of the ecumenical spirit in the last several decades, Americans are becoming more and more curious about the various religions of the world, including such major belief systems as Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism and Islam. Now, in The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, readers have at their fingertips a gold mine of information on religions, movements, and cults around the globe and across the centuries. Here are 8,200 alphabetical entries penned by some eighty contributors from around the world, representing the full spectrum of religious experience." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: BL 31 .O84 1997.

Palgrave Macmillan Dictionary of Political Thought
"Roger Scruton's Dictionary of Political Thought has been widely acclaimed as a profound and incisive guide to political ideas. This new edition takes stock of the revolutionary political changes that have taken place since the dictionary was first published in 1982, bringing the Dictionary right up to date. Some 1790 entries cover every aspect of political thought, defining concepts and ideologies, surveying the arguments on issues, giving capsule histories of political institutions, and summarizing (with newly expanded treatment) the thought of major political theorists." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: JA 61 .S37 2007.

Penguin Dictionary of Biology, 11th ed.
"The Penguin Dictionary of Biology defines some 6,000 terms relating to this rich, complex, and constantly expanding subject—from amino acids, bacteria, and the cell cycle to X-ray diffraction, Y chromosomes, and zygotes. Long established as the definitive single-volume source, the dictionary has now been extensively updated for its eleventh edition. With expanded encyclopedic entries to explain the most crucial concepts, it explores the very latest discoveries and developments, containing more than 400 new entries to take account of the latest thinking on genetics, human physiology, disease, and cell biology. All key botanical and zoological concepts as well as the core vocabulary of biochemistry, immunology, evolutionary theory, and ecology are defined in depth, making this the ideal reference for students, teachers, professionals, and amateur biologists." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: QH 13 .N62 2004.

Penguin Dictionary of Economics, 7th ed.
"Whether readers are students of economics or simply want to follow the economic discussions in the media today, this wide-ranging and accessible dictionary is the perfect source for explanations of a host of economic terms. With a world- wide focus that befits our truly global age, the seventh edition covers recent developments in economic theory and practice and contains detailed information on economic terms and the history of economics, as well as biographies of influential economists. Addressing finance and game theory, international monetary and welfare economics, applied economics, and major financial institutions, this dictionary is truly a valuable asset for anyone interested in understanding the economic engine that makes our world turn." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: HB61 .B33 2003.

Random House Webster's College Dictionary, 2nd ed.
Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE1628 .R28 1997.

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd ed.
"With over fifty years of experience in dictionary publishing behind it, Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary is the most definitive single-volume reference of the English language available. This modern dictionary offers an exhaustive, traditional study of the language, while covering the latest, most important developments–ahead of any other dictionary. The Random House Webster’s Dictionary is designed to meet the wide-ranging needs of today’s students and scholars, who may study ancient documents one hour and surf the Internet the next; of professional writers, who craft poems or write articles for technical journals; of businesspeople, who need to communicate clearly; and–above all–the needs of word lovers." (Publisher) Located at Middleton Research Desk: PE1625 .R293 2005.

Roget's II: the New Thesaurus, 3rd ed.
"Roget's II: The New Thesaurus, Third Edition, allows the user to find the right synonym with a minimum of effort. Unlike many thesauruses, this easy-to-use reference lists main entry words alphabetically, as in a dictionary, for quick lookup. Each entry is divided into senses, with brief definitions and a full list of synonyms for each sense, to ensure that the selected usage is the most appropriate one. All special usages, such as slang terms, are labeled and grouped together at the end of each synonym list. Following each list is a cross-reference to a related entry in the thesaurus"s unique Category Index. This index leads the reader from the starting word to dozens of others that have related or opposite meanings. All these features make Roget's II the best resource for finding the right word every time." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE 1591 .R715 1995.

Roget's International Thesaurus, 7th ed.

"The revolutionary achievement of Dr. Peter Mark Roget's first edition in 1852 was the development of a brand-new principle: the arrangement of words and phrases according to their meanings. Dr. Roget's system brings together in one place all the terms associated with a single thought or concept; it allows a wide-ranging survey of language within a book of relatively modest size, without the space-consuming repetitions that so severely limit the scope of thesauruses arranged in a dictionary format with A-to-Z entries. This brilliant organization makes Roget's International Thesaurus® both the most efficient word finder and a cutting-edge aid in stimulating thought, organizing ideas, and writing and speaking more clearly and effectively." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Reference Stacks: PE 1591 .R73 2010.

SpanishDict - Spanish to English Translation, Dictionary & Translator
This powerful site has English-Spanish (and Spanish-English) translations of words and idiomatic phrases, with pronunciation provided for each word. It also has a translator for blocks of Spanish or English text.

Specialty Dictionaries
"Not even a native speaker knows all the words of his own language. Technical vocabulary is used only by specialists and so is not generally known by non-specialists. Here you will find dictionaries and glossaries of specialized words in the English language." (from website)

Travlang's Portuguese-English On-line Dictionary
This simple interface connects to a database of 15,000 terms in Portuguese. An English to Portuguese interface is also available.

Urban Dictionary
Urban Dictionary is a searchable and browseable slang dictionary. Entries are added and rated by users, and they range from notable personalities to new phrases of profanity and new words such as econnoisseur and presponse. Warning: Urban Dictionary is not intended for children under 13, due to its often coarse content.

Wö - German-English Dictionary
Wö is a comprehensive German dictionary with translations into English, French, Spanish, and Italian. It contains over 3,500,000 entries covering words and idiomatic phrases in the different languages. The interface is in German, but its simplicity makes it easy to understand. "Übersetzung" searches for translations, while "Synonym" retrieves synonyms of the word in its mother language.

Webopedia: Online Computer Dictionary for Computer and Internet Terms and Definitions
Computer Hardware and Software concepts and terms.

Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, unabridged
"Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged, is the largest, most comprehensive American dictionary available, containing over 472,000 entries, 14,000 new words in a special Addenda Section, 3,000 illustrations, and 140,000 etymologies describing word origins." (Publisher) Located at Middleton Research Desk: PE1625 .W36 2002.

Word's Out: Gay Men's English
"Do gay men communicate with each other differently than they do with straight people? If they do, how is "gay men's English" different from "straight English"? In Word's Out, William Leap addresses these questions in an entertaining account that looks at gay men's English as a cultural and a linguistic phenomenon. Whereas previous studies of "gay language" have centered almost entirely on vocabulary, word history, and folklore, Word's Out focuses on the linguistic practices—cooperation, negotiation, and risk taking—that underlie gay men's conversations, storytelling, verbal dueling, self-description, and construction of outrageous references." (Publisher) Located in Middleton Main Stacks: PE 3727 .G39 L43 1996.