"A research article is a primary source...that is, it reports the methods and results of an original study performed by the authors. The kind of study may vary (it could have been an experiment, survey, interview, etc.), but in all cases, raw data have been collected and analyzed by the authors, and conclusions drawn from the results of that analysis.
Research articles follow a particular format. Look for:
- A brief introduction will often include a review of the existing literature on the topic studied, and explain the rationale of the author's study. This is important because it demonstrates that the authors are aware of exisiting studies, and are planning to contribute to this existing body of research in a meaningful way (that is, they're not just doing what others have already done).
- A methods section, where authors desribe how they collected and analyzed data. Statistical analyses are included. This section is quite detailed, as it's important that other researchers be able to verify and/or replicate these methods.
- A results section describes the outcomes of the data analysis. Charts and graphs illustrating the results are typically included.
- In the discussion, authors will explain their interpretation of their results and theorize on their importance to existing and future research.
- References or works cited are always included. These are the articles and books that the authors drew upon to plan their study and to support their discussion.
A review article is a secondary source...it is written about other articles, and does not report original research of its own. Review articles are very important, as they draw upon the articles that they review to suggest new research directions, to strengthen support for existing theories and/or identify patterns among exising research studies. For student researchers, review articles provide a great overview of the exisiting literature on a topic. If you find a literature review that fits your topic, take a look at its references/works cited list for leads on other relevant articles and books!"
From http://apus.libanswers.com/a.php?qid=153014, "What's the difference between a research and a review article?"
"A summary of the clinical literature. A systematic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of all research studies that address a particular clinical issue. The researchers use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic using a set of specific criteria. A systematic review typically includes a description of the findings of the collection of research studies. The systematic review may also include a quantitative pooling of data, called a meta-analysis." From http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/glossary-of-terms/?filterletter=s
- Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024725/
- Example of a Systematic Review - "Systematic Review of Sedentary Behaviour and health indicators in the early years (aged 0-4 uears)." http://libezp.lib.lsu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=77508160&site=eds-live&scope=site
"A way of combining data from many different research studies. A meta-analysis is a statistical process that combines the findings from individual studies." From http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/glossary-of-terms/?filterletter=m
- A Full-Text Example of a Meta-Analysis - "Primary prevention of overweight in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions aiming to decrease sedentary behaviour." http://libezp.lib.lsu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=82463896&site=eds-live&scope=site
Head, Research & Instruction Services
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Referencing Style Guide:
Generating Citations in Discovery video (AMA ONLY!):
NLM Catalog: Journals Referenced in the NCBI Databases
The journal abbreviation will be listed in the journal information as the NLM Title Abbreviation.
You can also search for journal title abbreviations here in Locator Plus, which is also part of the National Library of Medicine: http://locatorplus.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First
Types of Medical Research Studies: